MORMON  STUDIES  PRESENTS:



THE  STORY  OF
  The  MORMONS





By William A. Linn

(1902)








Book I   |   Book II   |   Book III   |   Book IV   |   Book V   |   Book VI   |   Index

go to:  Title  |  Preface  |  Contents (with links to all chapters)



 




THE STORY OF THE

MORMONS



From The Date of their Origin to
the Year 1901





BY


WILLIAM  ALEXANDER  LINN







New York
THE  MACMILLAN  COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLIAN & CO., LTD.

1902


All rights reserved





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COPYRIGHT, 1902
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.






Set up and stereotyped January, 1902.
Reprinted December, 1902,






Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing & Co. -- Berwick & Smith
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



 

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P R E F A C E

No chapter of American history has remained so long unwritten as that which tells the story of the Mormons. There are many books on the subject, -- histories written under the auspices of the Mormon church, which are hopelessly biased as well as incomplete; more trustworthy works which cover only certain periods; and books in the nature of "exposures " by former members of the church, which the Mormons attack as untruthful, and which rest, in the minds of the general reader, under a suspicion of personal bias. Mormonism, therefore, to-day suggests to most persons only one doctrine -- polygamy -- and only one leader -- Brigham Young, who made his name familiar to the present generations. Joseph Smith, Jr., is known, where known at all, only in the most general way as the founder of the sect, while the real originator of the whole scheme for a new church and of its doctrines and government, Sidney Rigdon, is known to few persons even by name.

The object of the present work is to present a consecutive history of the Mormons, from the day of their origin to the present writing, and as a secular, not as a religious, narrative. The search has been for facts, not for moral deductions, except as these present themselves in the course of the story. Since the usual weapon which the heads of the Mormon church use to meet anything unfavorable regarding their organization or leaders is a general denial, this narrative has been made to rest largely on Mormon sources of information. It has been possible to follow this plan a long way because many of the original Mormons left sketches that have been preserved. Thus we have Mother Smith's picture of her family and of the early days of the church; the Prophet's own account of the revelation to him of the golden plates, of his followers' early experiences, and of his own doings, almost day by day, to the date of his death, written with an egotist's
 



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appreciation of his own part in the play; other autobiographies, like Parley P. Pratt's and Lorenzo Snow's; and, finally, the periodicals which the church issued in Ohio, in Missouri, in Illinois, and in England, and the official reports of the discourses preached in Utah, -- all showing up, as in a mirror, the character of the persons who gave this Church of Latter-Day Saints its being and its growth.

In regard to no period of Mormon history is there such a lack of accurate information as concerning that which covers their moves to Ohio, thence to Missouri, thence to Illinois, and thence to Utah. Their own excuse for all these moves is covered by the one word "persecution" (meaning persecution on account of their religious belief), and so little has the non-Mormon world known about the subject that this explanation has scarcely been challenged. Much space is given to these early migrations, as in this way alone can a knowledge be acquired of the real character of the constituency built up by Smith in Ohio, and led by him from place to place until his death, and then to Utah by Brigham Young.

Any study of the aims and objects of the Mormon leaders must rest on the Mormon Bible ("Book of Mormon") and on the "Doctrine and Covenants," the latter consisting principally of the "revelations" which directed the organization of the church and its secular movements. In these alone are spread out the original purpose of the migration to Missouri and the instructions of Smith to his followers regarding their assumed rights to the territory they were to occupy; and without a knowledge of these "revelations" no fair judgment can be formed of the justness of the objections of the people of Missouri and Illinois to their new neighbors. If the fraudulent character of the alleged revelation to Smith of golden plates can be established, the foundation of the whole church scheme crumbles. If Rigdon's connection with Smith in the preparation of the Bible by the use of the "Spaulding manuscript" can be proved, the fraud itself is established. Considerable of the evidence on this point herein brought together is presented at least in new shape, and an adequate sketch of Sidney Rigdon is given for the first time. The probable service of Joachim's "Everlasting Gospel," as suggesting the story of the revelation of the plates, has been hitherto overlooked.
 



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A few words with regard to some of the sources of information quoted: -- "Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith and his Progenitors for Many Generations" ("Mother Smith's History," as this book has been generally called) was first published in 1853 by the Mormon press in Liverpool, with a preface by Orson Pratt recommending it; and the Millennial Star (Vol. XV, p. 682) said of it: "Being written by Lucy Smith, the mother of the Prophet, and mostly under his inspiration, will be ample guarantee for the authenticity of the narrative. . . . Altogether the work is one of the most interesting that has appeared in this latter dispensation." Brigham Young, however, saw how many of its statements told against the church, and in a letter to the Millennial Star (Vol. XVII, p. 298), dated January 31, 1858, he declared that it contained "many mistakes," and said that "should it ever be deemed best to publish these sketches, it will not be done until after they are carefully corrected." The preface to the edition of 1880, published by the Reorganized Church at Plano, Illinois, says that Young ordered the suppression of the first edition, and that "under this order large numbers were destroyed, few being preserved, some of which fell into the hands of those now with the Reorganized Church. For this destruction we see no adequate reason." James J. Strang, in a note to his pamphlet," Prophetic Controversy," says that Mrs. Corey (to whom the pamphlet is addressed) "wrote the history of the Smiths called 'Mother Smith's History.'" Mrs. Smith was herself quite incapable of putting her recollections into literary shape.

The autobiography of Joseph Smith, Jr., under the title "History of Joseph .Smith," began as a supplement to Volume XIV of the Millennial Star, and ran through successive volumes to Volume XXIV. The matter in the supplement and in the earlier numbers was revised and largely written by Rigdon. The preparation of the work began after he and Smith settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. In his last years Smith rid himself almost entirely of Rigdon's counsel, and the part of the autobiography then written takes the form of a diary which unmasks Smith's character as no one else could do. Most of the correspondence and official documents relating to the troubles in Missouri and Illinois are incorporated in this work.

Of the greatest value to the historian are the volumes of the Mormon publications issued at Kirtland, Ohio; Independence, Missouri; Nauvoo, Illinois; and Liverpool, England. The first of these, Evening and Morning Star (a monthly, twenty-four numbers), started at Independence and transferred to Kirtland, covers the period from June, 1832, to September, 1834; its successor, the Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate, was issued at Kirtland from 1834 to I837. This was followed by the Elders' Journal, which was transferred from Kirtland to Far West, Missouri, and was discontinued when the Saints were compelled to leave that state. Times and Seasons was published at Nauvoo from 1839 to 1845. Files of these publications are very scarce, the volumes of the Times and Seasons having been suppressed, so far as possible, by Brigham Young's order. The publication of the Millennial Star was begun in Liverpool in May, 1840, and is still continued. The early volumes contain the official epistles of the heads of the church to their followers, Smith's autobiography, correspondence describing the early migrations and the experiences in Utah, and much other valuable material,
 


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the authenticity of which cannot be disputed by the Mormons. In the Journal of Discourses (issued primarily for circulation in Europe) are found official reports of the principal discourses (or sermons) delivered in Salt Lake City during Young's regime. Without this official sponsor for the correctness of these reports, many of them would doubtless be disputed by the Mormons of to-day.

The earliest non-Mormon source of original information quoted is "Mormonism Unveiled," by E. D. Howe (Painesville, Ohio, 1834). Mr. Howe, after a newspaper experience in New York State, founded the Cleveland (Ohio) Herald in 1819, and later the Painesville (Ohio) Telegraph. Living near the scene of the Mormon activity in Ohio when they moved to that state, and desiring to ascertain the character of the men who were proclaiming a new Bible and a new church, he sent agents to secure such information among the Smiths' old acquaintances in New York and Pennsylvania, and made inquiries on kindred subjects, like the "Spaulding manuscript." His book was the first serious blow that Smith and his associates encountered, and their wrath against it and its author was fierce.

Pomeroy Tucker, the author of "Origin and Progress of the Mormons" (New York, 1867), was personally acquainted with the Smiths and with Harris and Cowdery before and after the appearance of the Mormon Bible. He read a good deal of the proof of the original edition of that book as it was going through the press, and was present during many of the negotiations with Grandin about its publication. His testimony in regard to early matters connected with the church is important.

Two non-Mormons who had an early view of the church in Utah and who put their observations in book form were B. G. Ferris ("Utah and the Mormons," New York, 1854 and 1856) and Lieutenant J. W. Gunnison of the United States Topographical Engineers ("The Mormons," Philadelphia, 1856). Both of these works contain interesting pictures of life in Utah in those early days.

There are three comprehensive histories of Utah, -- H. H. Bancroft's "History of Utah" (1889), Tullidge's "History of Salt Lake City" (1886), and Orson F. Whitney's "History of Utah," in four volumes, three of which, dated respectively March, 1892, April, 1893, and January, 1898, have been issued. The Reorganized Church has also published a "History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints" in three volumes. While Bancroft's work professes to be written from a secular standpoint, it is really a church production, the preparation of the text having been confided to Mormon hands. "We furnished Mr. Bancroft with his material," said a prominent Mormon church officer to me. Its plan is to give the Mormon view in the text, and to refer the reader for the other side to a mass of undigested notes, and its principal value to the student consists in its references to other authorities. Its general tone may be seen in its declaration that those who have joined the church to expose its secrets are "the most contemptible of all"; that those who have joined it honestly and, discovering what company they have got into, have given the information to the world, would far better have gone their way and said nothing about it; and, as to polygamy, that "those who waxed the hottest against" the practice "are not as a rule the purest of our people" (p. 361) and that the Edmunds Law of 1882 " capped the climax of absurdity " (p. 683).
 


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Tullidge wrote his history after he had taken part in the "New Movement." In it he brought together a great deal of information, including the text of important papers, which is necessary to an understanding of the growth and struggles of the church. The work was censored by a committee appointed by the Mormon authorities.

Bishop Whitney's history presents the pro-Mormon view of the church throughout. It is therefore wholly untrustworthy as a guide to opinion on the subjects treated, but, like Tullidge's, it supplies a good deal of material which is useful to the student who is prepared to estimate its statements at their true value.

The acquisition by the New York Public Library of the Berrian collection of books, early newspapers, and pamphlets on Mormonism, with the additions constantly made to this collection, places within the reach of the student all the material that is necessary for the formation of the fairest judgment on the subject.

W. A. L.      

    HACKENSACK, N.J., 1901.






 

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CONTENTS


BOOK  I


THE  MORMON  ORIGIN



CHAPTER I

001  FACILITY OF HUMAN BELIEF: The Real Miracle of Mormon Success -- Effrontery of the Leaders' Professions -- Attractiveness of Religious Beliefs to Man -- Wherein the World does not make Progress -- The Anglo-Saxon Appetite for Religious Novelties


CHAPTER II

008  THE SMITH FAMILY: Solomon Mack and his Autobiography -- Religious Characteristics of the Prophet's Mother -- The Family Life in Vermont -- Early Occupations in New York State -- Pictures of the Prophet as a Youth -- Recollections of the Smiths by their New York Neighbors


CHAPTER III

015  HOW JOSEPH SMITH BECAME A MONEY-DIGGER: His Use of a Divining Rod -- His First Introduction to Crystal-gazing -- Peeping after Hidden Treasure -- How Joseph obtained his own "Peek-stone" --Methods of Midnight Money-digging


CHAPTER IV

023  FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE GOLDEN BIBLE: Variations in the Early Descriptions -- Joseph's Acquaintance with the Hales -- His Elopement and Marriage -- What he told a Neighbor about the Origin of his Bible Discovery -- Early Anecdotes about the Book


CHAPTER V

028  THE DIFFERENT ACCOUNTS OF THE REVELATION OF THE BIBLE: The Versions about the Spanish Guardian -- Important Statement by the Prophet's Father -- The Later Account in the Prophet's Autobiography -- The Angel Visitor and the Acquisition of the Plates -- Mother Smith's Version


CHAPTER VI

035  TRANSLATION AND PUBLICATION OF THE BIBLE: Martin Harris's Connection with the Work -- Smith's Removal to Pennsylvania -- How the Translation was
 



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carried on -- Harris's Visit to Professor Anthon -- The Professor's Account of his Visit -- The Lost Pages -- The Prophet's Predicament and his Method of Escape -- Oliver Cowdery as an Assistant Translator -- Introduction of the Whitmers -- The Printing and Proof -- reading of the New Bible -- Recollections of Survivors


CHAPTER VII

050  THE SPAULDING MANUSCRIPT: Solomon Spaulding's Career -- History of "The Manuscript Found" -- Statements by Members of the Author's Family -- Testimony of Spaulding's Ohio Neighbors about the Resemblance of his Story to the Book of Mormon -- The Manuscript found in the Sandwich Islands


CHAPTER VIII

059  SIDNEY RIGDON: His Biography -- Connection with the Campbells -- Efficient Church Work in Ohio -- His Jealousy of his Church Leaders -- Disciples' Beliefs and Mormon Doctrines -- Intimations about a New Bible -- Rigdon's First Connection with Smith -- The Rigdon-Smith Translation of the Scriptures -- Rigdon's Conversion to Mormonism


CHAPTER IX

074  "THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL": Probable Origin of the Idea of a Bible on Plates -- Cyril's Gift from an Angel and Joachim's Use of it -- Where Rigdon could have obtained the Idea Prominence of the "Everlasting Gospel" in Mormon Writings


CHAPTER X

078  THE WITNESSES TO THE PLATES: Text of the Two "Testimonies" -- The Prophet's Explanation of the First -- Early Reputation and Subsequent History of the Signers -- The Truth about the Kinderhook Plates and Rafinesque's Glyphs


CHAPTER XI

089  THE MORMON BIBLE: Some of its Errors and Absurdities -- Facsimile of the First Edition Title-page -- The Historical Narrative of the Book -- Its Lack of Literary Style -- Appropriated Chapters of the Scriptures -- Specimen Anachronisms


CHAPTER XII

099  ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH: Smith's Ordination by John the Baptist -- The First Baptisms -- Early Branches of the Church -- The Revelation about Church Officers -- Cowdery's Ambition and How it was Repressed -- Smith's Title as Seer, Translator, and Prophet -- His Arrest and Release -- Arrival of Parley P. Platt and Rigdon in Palmyra -- The Command to remove to Ohio

 

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CHAPTER XIII

107  THE MORMONS' BELIEFS AND DOCTRINES -- CHURCH GOVERNMENT: Long Years of Apostasy -- Origin of the Name "Mormon" -- Original Titles of the Church -- Belief in a Speedy Millennium --The Future Possession of the Earth -- Smith's Revelations and how they were obtained -- The First Published Editions -- Counterfeit Revealers -- What is Taught of God -- Brigham Young's Adam Sermon -- Baptism for the Dead -- The Church Officers



BOOK  II

IN  OHIO



CHAPTER I

122  THE FIRST CONVERTS AT KIRTLAND: Original Missionaries sent out to the Lamanites -- Organization of a Church in Ohio -- Effect of Rigdon's Conversion -- General Interest in the New Bible and Prophet -- How Men of Education came to believe in Mormonism -- Result of the Upturning of Religious Belief


CHAPTER II

128  WILD VAGARIES OF THE CONVERTS: Convulsions and Commissions -- Common Religious Excitements of those Days --Description of the "Jerks" -- Smith's Repressing Influence


CHAPTER III

131  GROWTH OF THE CHURCH: The Appointment of Elders --Beginning of the Proselyting System -- Smith's Power Entrenched -- His Temporal Provision -- Repression of Rigdon -- The Tarring and Feathering of Smith and Rigdon -- Treatment of the Mormons and of Other New Denominations compared -- Rigdon's Punishment


CHAPTER IV

138  GIFTS OF TONGUES AND MIRACLES: How Persons "Spoke inTongues" -- Seeing the Lord Face to Face -- Early Use of Miracles --The Story of the "Book of Abraham" -- The Prophet as a Translator of Greek and Egyptian.


CHAPTER V

142  SMITH'S OHIO BUSINESS ENTERPRISES: Young's Picture of the Prophet's Experience as a Retail Merchant -- The Land Speculation -- Laying out of the City -- Building of the Temple -- Consecration of Property -- How the Leaders looked out for themselves -- Amusing Explanation of Section III of the "Doctrine and Covenants" -- The Story of the Kirtland Bank -- The Church View of its Responsibility for the Currency -- The Business Crash and Smith's Flight to Missouri

 


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CHAPTER VI

153  LAST DAYS AT KIRTLAND: Pictures of the Prophet --Accusations against Church Leaders in Missouri -- Serious Charge against the Prophet -- W. W. Phelps's Rebellion -- Smith's Description of Leading Lights of the Church -- Charges concerning Smith's Morality -- The Church accused of practising Polygamy -- A Lively Fight at a Church Service -- Smith's and Rigdon's Defence of their Conduct -- The Later History of Kirtland



BOOK  III

IN  MISSOURI



CHAPTER I

161  THE DIRECTIONS TO THE SAINTS ABOUT THEIR ZION: Western Missouri in the Early Days -- Pioneer Farming and Home-making -- The Trip of the Four Mormon Missionaries -- Direction about the Gathering of the Elect -- How they were to possess the Land of Promise -- Their Appropriation of the Good Things purchased of their Enemies


CHAPTER II

166  SMITH'S FIRST VISITS TO MISSOURI: Founding the City of Zion and the Temple -- Marvellous Stories that were told --Dissatisfaction of Some of the Prophet's Companions


CHAPTER III

169  THE EXPULSION FROM JACKSON COUNTY: Rapid Influx of Mormons -- Result of the Publication of the Revelations -- First Friction with their Non-Mormon Neighbors -- Manifesto of the Mormons' Opponents -- Their Big Mass Meeting -- Demands on the Mormons -- Destruction of the Star Printing-office -- The Mormons'Agreement to leave -- Smith's Advice to his Flock -- Repudiation of the Mormon Agreement and Renewal of Hostilities -- The Battle at Big Blue -- Evacuation of the County -- March of the Army of Zion -- An Inglorious Finale


CHAPTER IV

182  FRUITLESS NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE JACKSON COUNTY PEOPLE: A Fair Offer Rejected -- The Mormon Counter Propositions --Governor Dunklin on the Situation


CHAPTER V

185   IN CLAY, CALDWELL, AND DAVIESS COUNTIES: Welcome of the Mormons by New Neighbors -- Effect of their Claims about Possessing the Land -- Ordered out of Clay County -- Founding of Far West -- A Welcome to Smith and Rigdon

 

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CHAPTER VI

188  RADICAL DISSENSIONS IN THE CHURCH: Trial of Phelps and Whitmer -- Conviction of Oliver Cowdery on Serious Charges -- Expulsion of Leading Members -- Origin of the Danites -- Suggested by the Prophet at Kirtland -- The Danite Constitution and Oath -- Origin of the Tithing System


CHAPTER VII

195  BEGINNING OF ACTIVE HOSTILITIES: Result of Smith's Domineering Course -- Jealousy caused by the Scattering of the Saints -- Founding of Adam-ondi-Ahman -- Rigdon's Famous Salt Sermon -- Open Defiance of the Non-Mormons -- The Mormons in Politics -- An Election Day Row -- Arrests and Threats


CHAPTER VIII

200  A STATE OF CIVIL WAR: Calling out of the Militia -- Proposed Expulsion of the Mormons from Carroll County -- The Siege of De Witt -- The Prophet's Defiance -- Work of his "Fur Company" -- Gentile Retaliation -- The Battle of Crooked River -- The Massacre at Hawn's Mills -- Governor Boggs's "Order of Extermination"


CHAPTER IX

208  THE FINAL EXPULSION FROM THE STATE: General Lucas's Terms to the Mormons -- Surrender of Far West and Arrest of Mormon Leaders -- General Clark's Address to the Mormons -- His Report to the Governor -- General Wilson's Picture of Adam-ondi-Ahman -- Fate of the Mormon Prisoners -- Testimony at their Trial -- Smith's Escape -- Migration to Illinois



BOOK  IV

IN  ILLINOIS



CHAPTER I

219  THE RECEPTION OF THE MORMONS: Incidents in the Early History of the State -- Defiant Lawlessness -- Politicians the First to Welcome the Newcomers -- Landowners Among their First Friends


CHAPTER II

223  THE SETTLEMENT OF NAUVOO: Smith's Leadership Illustrated -- The Land Purchases -- A Reconciliation of Conflicting Revelations -- Smith's Financiering -- Shameful Misrepresentation to Immigrants


CHAPTER III

226  THE BUILDING UP OF THE CITY: Unhealthfulness of its Site -- Rapid Growth of the Place -- Early Pictures of it -- Foreign Proselyting -- Why England was a Good Field -- Method of Work there --The Employment of Miracles -- How the Converts were sent over

 

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CHAPTER IV

234  THE NAUVOO CITY GOVERNMENT: Dr. Galland's Suggestions -- An Important Revelation -- Church Buildings Ordered -- Subserviency of the Legislature -- Dr. John C. Bennett's Efficient Aid -- Authority granted to the City Government -- The Nauvoo Legion -- Bennett's Welcome -- The Temple and How it was Constructed


CHAPTER V

243  THE MORMONS IN POLITICS: Smith's Decree against VanBuren -- How the Prophet swung the Mormon Vote back to the Democrats -- The Attempted Assassination of Governor Boggs -- Smith's Arrest and What Resulted from it -- Defeat of a Whig Candidate by a Revelation


CHAPTER VI

250  SMITH A CANDIDATE FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: His Letter to Clay and Calhoun -- Their Replies and Smith's Abusive Wrath -- The Prophet's Views on National Politics -- Reform Measures that He Proposed -- His Nomination by the Church Paper -- Experiences of Missionaries sent out to Work Up his Campaign


CHAPTER VII

256  SOCIAL CONDITIONS IN NAUVOO: Character of its Population -- Treatment of Immigrant Converts -- Some Disreputable Gentile Neighbors -- The Complaints of Mormon Stealings -- Significant Admissions -- Mormon Protection against Outsiders -- The Whittlers


CHAPTER VIII

262  SMITH'S PICTURE OF HIMSELF AS AUTOCRAT: Glances at his Autobiography -- Difficulties Connected with the Building Enterprises -- A Plain Warning to Discontented Workmen -- Trouble with Rigdon -- Pressed by his Creditors -- Transaction with Remick --Currency Law passed by his City Council -- How Smith regarded himself as a Prophet -- His Latest Prophecies


CHAPTER IX

268   SMITH'S FALLING OUT WITH BENNETT AND HIGBEE: Bennett's Expulsion and the Explanations concerning it -- His Attacks on his Late Companions -- Charges against Nauvoo Morality --The Case of Nancy Rigdon -- The Higbee Incident


CHAPTER X

272   THE INSTITUTION OF POLYGAMY: An Examination of its Origin -- Its Conflict with the Teachings of the Mormon Bible and Revelations -- Early Loosening of the Marriage View under Smith -- Proof of the Practice of Polygamy in Nauvoo -- Testimony of Eliza R. Snow -- How her Brother Lorenzo shook

 

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off his Bachelorhood -- John B. Lee as a Polygamist -- Ebenezer Robinson's Statement -- Objects of "The Holy Order" -- The Writing of the Revelation about Polygamy --Its First Public Announcement -- Sidney Rigdon's Innocence in the Matter


CHAPTER XI

282  PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DOCTRINE OF POLYGAMY: Text of the Revelation -- Orson Pratt's Presentation of it -- The Doctrine of Sealing -- Necessity of Sealing as a Means of Salvation -- Attempt to show that Christ was a Polygamist


CHAPTER XII

290  THE SUPPRESSION OF THE Expositor: Dr. Foster and the Laws -- Rebellion against Smith's Teachings -- Leading Features of the Expositor -- Trial of the Paper and its Editors before the City Council -- Destruction of the Press and Type -- Smith's Proclamation


CHAPTER XIII

297  UPRISING OF THE NON-MORMONS: Resolutions Adopted at Warsaw -- Organizing and Arming of the People -- Action of Governor Ford -- Smith's Arrest -- Departure of the Prisoners for Carthage


CHAPTER XIV

301  THE MURDER OF THE PROPHET: Legal Proceedings after his Arrival in Carthage -- The Governor and the Militia -- The Carthage Jail and its Guards -- Action of the Warsaw Regiment -- The Attack on the Jail and the Killing of the Prophet and his Brother -- Funeral Services in Nauvoo -- Final Resting-place of the Bodies -- Result of Indictments of the Alleged Murderers -- Review of the Prophet's Character


CHAPTER XV

313  AFTER SMITH'S DEATH: The People in a Panic -- The Mormon Leaders for Peace -- The Future Government of the Church --Brigham Young's Victory -- Rigdon's Trial before the High Council -- Verdict Against Him -- His Church in Pennsylvania -- His Ambition to be the Head of a Distinct Church -- A Visit from Heavenly Messengers -- His Last Days


CHAPTER XVI

322  RIVALRIES OVER THE SUCCESSION: The Claim of the Prophet's Eldest Son -- Trouble caused by the Prophet's Widow -- The Reorganized Church -- Strang's Church in Wisconsin -- Lyman Wight's Colony in Texas


CHAPTER XVII

327  BRIGHAM YOUNG: His Early Years -- His Initiation in to the Mormon Church -- Fidelity to the Prophet -- Embarrassments of his Position as Head of the Church -- His View about Revelations -- Plan for Home Mission Work -- His Election as President

 

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CHAPTER XVIII

331  RENEWED TROUBLE FOR THE MORMONS: More Charges of Stealing -- Significant Admission by Young -- Business Plight of Nauvoo -- More Politics -- Defiant Attitude of Mormon Leaders -- An Editor's View of Legal Rights -- Stories about the Danites -- Brother William on Brigham Young -- The "Burnings" -- Sheriff Backenstos's Proclamations -- Lieutenant Worrell's Murder -- Mormon Retaliation --Appointment of the Douglas-Hardin Commission


CHAPTER XIX

338  THE EXPULSION OF THE MORMONS: General Hardin's Proclamation -- County Meetings of Non-Mormons -- Their Ultimatum --The Commission's Negotiations -- Non-Mormon Convention at Carthage -- The Agreement for the Mormon Evacuation


CHAPTER XX

343  THE EVACUATION OF NAUVOO: Major Warren as a Peace Preserver -- The Mormons' Disposition of their Property -- Departure of the Leaders hastened by Indictments -- Arrival of New Citizens --Continued Hostility of the Non-Mormons -- "The Last Mormon War" --Panic in Nauvoo -- Plan for a March on the Mormon City -- Fruitless Negotiations for a Compromise -- The Advance against the City -- The Battle and its Results -- Terms of Peace -- The Final Evacuation


CHAPTER XXI

352  NAUVOO AFTER THE EXODUS: Arrival of Governor Ford -- The Final Work on the Temple -- The "Endowment" Ceremony and Oath -- Futile Efforts to sell the Temple -- Its Destruction by Fire and Wind -- The Nauvoo of To-day



BOOK  V

THE  MIGRATION  TO  UTAH



CHAPTER I

357  PREPARATION FOR THE LONG MARCH: Uncertainty of their Destination -- Explanations to the People -- Disposition of Real and Personal Property -- Collection of Draft Animals -- Activity in Wagon and Tent Making -- The Old Charge of Counterfeiting -- Pecuniary Sacrifices of the Mormons in Illinois


CHAPTER II

362   FROM THE MISSISSIPPI TO THE MISOURI: The First Crossings of the River -- Camp Arrangements -- Sufferings from the Cold -- The Story of the Westward March -- Motley Make-up of the Procession -- Expedients for obtaining Supplies -- Terrible Sufferings of the Expelled Remnant -- Privations at Mt. Pisgah

 

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CHAPTER III

371  THE MORMON BATTALION: Extravagant Claims Regarding it Disproved -- General Kearney's Invitation -- Source of the Initial Suggestion -- How the Mormons profited by the Organization -- The March to California -- Colonel Thomas L. Kane's Visit to the Missouri -- His Intimate Relations with the Mormon Church


CHAPTER IV

375  THE CAMPS ON THE MISSOURI: Friendly Welcome of the Mormons by the Indians -- The Site of Winter Quarters -- Busy Scenes on the River Bank -- Sickness and Death -- The Building of aTemporary City


CHAPTER V

379  THE PIONEER TRIP ACROSS THE PLAINS: Early Views of the Unexplored West -- The First White Visitors to that Country -- Organization of the Pioneer Mormon Band -- Rules observed on theMarch -- Successful Buffalo Hunting -- An Indian Alarm -- Dearth of Forage -- Post-offices of the Plains -- A Profitable Ferry


CHAPTER VI

385  FROM THE ROCKIES TO SALT LAKE VALLEY: No Definite Stopping-place in View -- Advice received on the Way -- The Mormon Expedition to California by Way of Cape Horn -- Brannan's Fall from Grace -- Westward from Green River -- Advance Explorers through a Canon -- First View of Great Salt Lake Valley -- Irrigation and Crop Planting begun


CHAPTER VII

392  THE FOLLOWING COMPANIES: Their Leaders and Make-up -- Young's Return Trip -- Last Days on the Missouri -- Scheme for a Permanent Settlement in Iowa -- Westward March of Large Companies



BOOK  VI

IN  UTAH



CHAPTER I

395  THE FOUNDING OF SALT LAKE CITY: Utah's First White Explorers -- First Mormon Services in the Valley -- Young's View of the Right to the Land -- The First Buildings -- Laying out the City -- Early Crop Disappointment -- Discomforts of the First Winter -- Primitive Dwelling-places -- The Visitation of Crickets -- Glowing Accounts sent to England

 

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CHAPTER II

402  PROGRESS OF THE SETTLEMENT: Schools and Manufactures -- How the City appeared in 1849 -- Sufferings during the Winter of 1908 -- Immigration checked by the Lack of Food -- Aid supplied by the California Goldseekers -- Danger of a Mormon Exodus -- Young's Rebuke to his Gold-seeking Followers -- The Crop Failure of 1855 and the Famine of the Following Winter -- The Tabernacle and Temple


CHAPTER III

410  THE FOREIGN IMMIGRATION TO UTAH: The Commercial Joint Stock Company Scandal -- Deceptive Statements made to Foreign Converts -- John Taylor's Address to the Saints in Great Britain -- Petition to Queen Victoria -- Mormon Duplicity illustrated -- Young's Advice to Emigrants -- Glowing Pictures of Salt Lake Valley -- The Perpetual Emigrating Fund -- Details of the Emigration System


CHAPTER IV

418  THE HAND-CART TRAGEDY: Young's Scheme for Economy -- His Responsibility for the Hand-cart Experiment -- Details of the Arrangement -- Delays at Iowa City -- Unheeded Warnings -- Privations by the Way -- Early Lack of Provisions -- Suffering caused by Insufficient Clothing -- Deaths of the Old and Infirm -- Horrors of the Camps in the Mountains -- Frozen Corpses found at Daybreak -- Sufferings of a Party at Devil's Gate -- Young's Attempt to shif tthe Responsibility


CHAPTER V

428  EARLY POLITICAL HISTORY: The Aim at Independence -- First Local Government -- Adoption of a Constitution for the State of Deseret -- Babbitt's Application for Admission as a Delegate --Memorial opposing his Claim -- His Rejection -- The Territorial Government


CHAPTER VI

433  BRIGHAM YOUNG'S DESPOTISM: Causes that contributed to its Success -- Helplessness of the New-comers from Europe --Influence of Superstition -- Young's Treatment of the Gladdenites -- His Appropriation of Property Laws passed by the Mormon Legislature -- Bishops as Ward Magistrates -- A Mormon Currency and Alphabet -- What Emigrants to California learned about Mormon Justice


CHAPTER VII

441  THE "REFORMATION": Young's Disclosures about the Character of his Flock -- The Stealing from One Another -- The Threat about "Laying Judgment to the Line" -- Plain Declarations about the taking of Human Lives -- First Steps of the "Reformation" -- An Inquisition and Catechism -- An Embarrassing Confession -- Warning to those who would leave the Valley

 

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CHAPTER VIII

448  SOME CHURCH-INSPIRED MURDERS: The Story of the Parrishes -- Carrying out of a Cold-blooded Plot -- Judge Cradlebaugh's Effort to convict the Murderers -- The Tragedy of the Aikin Party -- The Story of Frederick Loba's Escape


CHAPTER IX

454  BLOOD ATONEMENT: Early Intimations concerning it --Jedediah M. Grant's Explanation of Human Sacrifices -- BrighamYoung's Definition of "Laying Judgment to the Line" -- Two of the Sacrifices described -- "The Affair at San Pete"


CHAPTER X

458  TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT: Brigham Young the First Governor -- Colonel Kane's Part in his Appointment -- Kane's False Statements to President Fillmore -- Welcome to the Non-Mormon Officers -- Their Early Information about Young's Influence -- Pioneer Anniversary Speeches -- Judge Brocchus's Offence to the Mormons -- Young's Threatening and Abusive Reply -- The Judge's Alarm about his Personal Safety -- Return of the Non-Mormon Federal Officers to Washington -- Young's Defence


CHAPTER XI

467   MORMON TREATMENT OF FEDERAL OFFICERS: A Territorial Election Law -- Why Colonel Steptoe declined the Governorship --Young's Assertion of his Authority -- His Reappointment -- Two Bad Judicial Appointments -- Judge Stiles's Trouble about the Marshals -- Burning of his Books and Papers -- How Judge Drummond's Attempt at Independence was foiled -- The Mormon View of Land Titles -- Hostile Attitude toward the Government Surveyors -- Reports of the Indian Agents


CHAPTER XII

476   THE MORMON "WAR": What the Federal Authorities had learned about Mormonism -- Declaration of the Republican National Convention of 1856 -- Striking Speech by Stephen A. Douglas -- Alfred Cumming appointed Governor with a New Set of Judges -- Statement in the President's Message -- Employment of a Military Force -- The Kimball Mail Contract -- Organization of the Troops -- General Harney's Letter of Instruction -- Threats against the Advancing Foe -- Mobilization of the Nauvoo Legion -- Captain VanVliet's Mission to Salt Lake City -- Young's Defiance of the Government -- His Proclamation to the Citizens of Utah -- "General" Wells's Order to his Officers -- Capture and Burning of a Government Train -- Colonel Alexander's Futile March -- Colonel Johnston's Advance from Fort Laramie -- Harrowing Experience of Lieutenant Colonel Cooke's Command

 

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CHAPTER XIII

494  THE MORMON PURPOSE: Correspondence between Colonel Alexander and Brigham Young -- Illustration of Young's Vituperative Powers -- John Taylor's Threat -- Incendiary Teachings in Salt Lake City -- A Warning to Saints who would Desert -- The Army's Winter Camp -- Proclamation by Governor Cumming -- Judge Eckles's Court -- Futile Preparations at Washington


CHAPTER XIV

501  COLONEL KANE'S MISSION: His Wily Proposition to President Buchanan -- His Credentials from the President -- Arrival in California under an Assumed Name -- Visit to Camp Scott -- General Johnston ignored -- Reasons why both the Government and the Mormons desired Peace -- Kane's Success with Governor Cumming -- The Governor's Departure for Salt Lake City -- Deceptions practiced on him in Echo Canon -- His Reception in the City -- Playing into Mormon Hands -- The Governor's Introduction to the People -- Exodus of Mormons begun


CHAPTER XV

511  THE PEACE COMMISSION: President Buchanan's Volte-face -- A Proclamation of Pardon -- Instructions to Two Peace Commissioners -- Chagrin of the Military -- Governor Cumming's Misrepresentations -- Conferences between the Commissioners and Young -- Brother Dunbar's Singing of "Zion" -- Young's Method of Surrender -- Judge Eckles on Plural Marriages -- The Terms made with the Mormons -- March of the Federal Troops to the Deserted City --Return of the Mormons to their Homes


CHAPTER XVI

517  THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS MASSACRE: Circumstances Indicative of Mormon Official Responsibility -- The Make-up of the Arkansas Party -- Motives for Mormon Hostility to them -- Parley P. Pratt's Shooting in Arkansas -- Refusal of Food Supplies to the Party after leaving Salt Lake City -- Their Plight before they were attacked -- Successful Measures for Defence -- Disarrangement of the Mormon Plans -- John D. Lee's Treacherous Mission -- Pitiless Slaughter of Men, Women, and Children -- Testimony given at Lee'sTrial -- The Plundering of the Dead -- Lee's Account of the Planning of the Massacre -- Responsibility of High Church Officers -- Lee's Report to Brigham Young and Brigham's Instructions to him -- The Disclosures by "Argus" -- Lee's Execution and Last Words


CHAPTER XVII

535  AFTER THE "WAR": Judge Cradlebaugh's Attempts to enforce the Law -- Investigation of the Mountain Meadows Massacre -- Governor Cumming's Objections to the Use of Troops to assist the Court -- A Washington Decision in Favor of Young's Authority -- The Story of a Counterfeit Plate -- Five Thousand Men under Arms to protect Young from Arrest -- Sudden Departure of Cumming -- Governor Dawson's Brief Term -- His Shocking Treatment at Mormon Hands -- Governor Harding's Administration -- The Morrisite Tragedy

 

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CHAPTER XVIII

543  ATTITUDES OF THE MORMONS DURING THE SOUTHERN REBELLION: Press and Pulpit Utterances -- Arrival of Colonel Connor's Force -- His March through Salt Lake City to Camp Douglas -- Governor Harding's Plain Message to the Legislature -- Mormon Retaliation -- The Governor and Two Judges requested to leave the Territory -- Their Spirited Replies -- How Young escaped Arrest by Colonel Connor's Force -- Another Yielding to Mormon Power at Washington


CHAPTER XIX

552  EASTERN VISITORS TO SALT LAKE CITY: Schuyler Colfax's Interviews with Young -- Samuel Bowles's Praise of the Mormons and his Speedy Correction of his Views -- Repudiation of Colfax's Plan to drop Polygamy -- Two more Utah Murders -- Colfax's Second Visit


CHAPTER XX

557  GENTILE IRRUPTION AND MORMON SCHISM: Young's Jealousy of Gentile Merchants -- Organization of the Zion Cooperative Mercantile Institution -- Inception of the "New Movement" -- Its Leaders and Objects -- The Peep o' Day and the Utah Magazine -- Articles that aroused Young's Hostility -- Visit of the Prophet's Sons to Salt Lake City -- Trial and Excommunication of Godbe and Harrison -- Results of the "New Movement"


CHAPTER XXI

567  LAST YEARS OF BRIGHAM YOUNG: New Governors --Shaffer's Rebuke to the Nauvoo Legion -- Conflict with the New Judges -- Brigham Young and Others indicted -- Young's Temporary Imprisonment -- A Supreme Court Decision in Favor of the Mormon Marshal and Attorney -- Outside Influences affecting Utah Affairs -- Grant's Special Message to Congress -- Failure of the Frelinghuysen Bill in the House -- Signing of the Poland Bill -- Ann Eliza Young's Suit for Divorce -- The Later Governors


CHAPTER XXII

574  BRIGHAM YOUNG'S DEATH: His Character -- Explanation of his Dictatorial Power -- Exaggerated Views of his Executive Ability -- Overestimations by Contemporaries -- Young's Wealth and how he acquired it -- His Revenue from Divorces -- Unrestrained Control of the Church Property -- His Will -- Suit against his Executors -- List of his Wives -- His Houses in Salt Lake City


CHAPTER XXIII

574  SOCIAL ASPECTS OF POLYGAMY: Varied Provisions for Plural Wives -- Home Accommodations of the Leaders -- Horace Greeley's Observation about Woman's Place in Utah -- Means of overcoming Female Jealousy -- Young

 

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and Grant on the Unhappiness of Mormon Wives -- Acceptance of Fanatical Teachings by Women -- Kimball on a Fair Division of the Converts -- Church Influence in Behalf of Plural Marriages -- A Prussian Convert's Dilemma -- President Cleveland on the Evils of Polygamy

CHAPTER XXIV

590  THE FIGHT AGAINST POLYGAMY: First Measures introduced in Congress -- The Act of 1862 -- The Cullom Bill of 1869 -- Its Failure in the Senate -- The United States Supreme Court Decision regarding Polygamy -- Conviction of John Miles -- Appeal of Women of Salt Lake City to Mrs. Hayes and the Women of the United States -- President Hayes's Drastic Recommendation to Congress --Recommendations of Presidents Garfield and Arthur -- Passage of the Edmunds Bill -- Its Provisions -- The Edmunds-Tucker Amendment --Appointment of the Utah Commission -- Determined Opposition of the Mormon Church -- Placing their Flags at Half Mast -- Conviction sunder the New Law -- Leaders in Hiding or in Exile -- Mormon Honors for those who took their Punishment -- Congress asked to disfranchise All Polygamists -- The Mormon Church brought to Bay -- Woodruff's Famous Proclamation -- How it was explained to the Church -- The Roberts Case and the Vetoed Act of 1901 -- How Statehood came


CHAPTER XXV

609  THE MORMONISM OF TO-DAY: Future Place of the Churchin American History -- Main Points of the Mormon Political Policy -- Unbroken Power of the Priesthood -- Fidelity of the Younger Members -- Extension of the Membership over Adjoining States -- Mission Work at Home and Abroad -- Decreased Foreign Membership -- Effect of False Promises to Converts -- The Settlements in Canada and Mexico -- Polygamy still a Living Doctrine -- Reasons for its Hold on the Church -- Its Appeal to the Female Members -- Importance of a Federal Constitutional Amendment forbidding Polygamous Marriages -- Scope of the Mormon Political Ambition


619  INDEX


 

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LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS


040  ALLEGED CHARACTERS FROM THE GOLDEN PLATES:


086  FACSIMILIES OF THREE OF THE KINDERHOOK PLATES:


090  FACSIMILE OF TITLE-PAGE OF FIRST EDITION OF MORMON BIBLE:


116  DIAGRAM OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD:


140  FACSIMILE FROM THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM:


148  FACSIMILIE OF ALTERED KIRTLAND BANK-NOTE:



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